Depression and chronic inflammation are common in persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV+). Although depression and response to inflammatory challenge are shown to reflect activity in common neural networks, little is known regarding sub-clinical presentation in persons chronically infected with HIV. The relationship of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) between the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) and bilateral amygdala to Beck Depression Inventory-1 (BDI) scores were compared within a group of 23 HIV+ and 23 HIV-negative comparison adults. An interaction was found wherein lower rsFC between the sgACC and both right and left amygdala was associated with higher BDI scores in HIV+ individuals. Total BDI scores and plasma levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, and IL-10 made available from 10 of the HIV+ patients were regressed upon an index of spontaneous whole-brain activity at rest; i.e., the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFFs). Elevated levels of depression and IL-6 were associated with increased ALFF in a cluster of voxels on the medial portion of the ventral surface of the frontal lobe (Brodmann Area 11). Within this sample of HIV+ individuals lower rsFC of the sgACC with subcortical limbic regions predicts greater burden of depressive symptomology whereas elevated activity in the adjacent BA 11 may reflect sickness, indexed by elevated IL-6, and associated depressive behaviors.
- Perigenual cingulate
- Seed-based connectivity, salience network
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience