Respiratory tract infections in the pathway to multiple myeloma: A population-based study in Scandinavia

Ola Landgren, Joshua S. Rapkin, Lene Mellemkjaer, Gloria Gridley, Lynn R. Goldin, Eric A. Engels

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

38 Scopus citations


Encounter with infectious antigens has been proposed to initiate the cascade of events associated with progression from premalignancy (monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, MGUS) to multiple myeloma (MM). We conducted a population-based case-control study to evaluate risk of developing MM associated with a personal history of various respiratory tracts infections occurring >1 year prior to MM. Inpatient (1977-1997) and outpatient (1994-1997) diagnoses were obtained for all MM patients (n=4,476) diagnosed in Denmark (1977-1997) and 16,727 matched controls. A personal history of pneumonia was associated with a 1.6-fold (95%CI 1.3-2.0) increased risk of MM; the elevated risk was restricted to 1-4.99 years prior to the diagnosis of MM (OR=1.7, 95%CI 1.3-2.2). Individuals with two and three or more previous episodes of pneumonia had a 1.7-fold (95%CI 1.0-3.0; p=0.05) and a 1.5-fold (95%CI 0.6-3.9) elevated MM risk, respectively. Pneumonia could be a trigger to the development of MM or a manifestation of immune disturbances in late-stage MGUS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1697-1700
Number of pages4
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Etiology
  • Infectious agents
  • MGUS
  • Multiple myeloma
  • Pneumonia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology


Dive into the research topics of 'Respiratory tract infections in the pathway to multiple myeloma: A population-based study in Scandinavia'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this