Resistance to cytotoxicity and sustained release of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 in the presence of decreased interferon-γ after differentiation of glioblastoma by human natural killer cells

Anna K. Kozlowska, Han Ching Tseng, Kawaljit Kaur, Paytsar Topchyan, Akihito Inagaki, Vickie T. Bui, Noriyuki Kasahara, Nicholas Cacalano, Anahid Jewett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

21 Scopus citations

Abstract

Natural killer (NK) cells are functionally suppressed in the glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumor microenvironment. We have recently shown that survival and differentiation of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs)/poorly differentiated tumors are controlled through two distinct phenotypes of cytotoxic and non-cytotoxic/split anergized NK cells, respectively. In this paper, we studied the function of NK cells against brain CSCs/poorly differentiated GBM and their NK cell-differentiated counterparts. Brain CSCs/poorly differentiated GBM, differentiated by split anergized NK supernatants (supernatants from NK cells treated with IL-2 + anti-CD16mAb) expressed higher levels of CD54, B7H1 and MHC-I and were killed less by the NK cells, whereas their CSCs/poorly differentiated counterparts were highly susceptible to NK cell lysis. Resistance to NK cells and differentiation of brain CSCs/poorly differentiated GBM by split anergized NK cells were mediated by interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Brain CSCs/poorly differentiated GBM expressed low levels of TNFRs and IFN-γRs, and when differentiated and cultured with IL-2-treated NK cells, they induced increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 and chemokine IL-8 in the presence of decreased IFN-γ secretion. NK-induced differentiation of brain CSCs/poorly differentiated GBM cells was independent of the function of IL-6 and/or IL-8. The inability of NK cells to lyse GBM tumors and the presence of a sustained release of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and chemokine IL-8 in the presence of a decreased IFN-γ secretion may lead to the inadequacy of NK cells to differentiate GBM CSCs/poorly differentiated tumors, thus failing to control tumor growth.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1085-1097
Number of pages13
JournalCancer Immunology, Immunotherapy
Volume65
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2016

Keywords

  • Brain cancer stem cells
  • GBM
  • IFN-γ
  • Immunotherapy
  • NK cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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