Resilience Following Traumatic Brain Injury: A Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems Study

Jeffrey S. Kreutzer, Jennifer H. Marwitz, Adam P. Sima, Thomas F. Bergquist, Douglas E Johnson-Greene, Elizabeth Felix, Gale G. Whiteneck, Laura E. Dreer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

20 Scopus citations


Objective: To examine resilience at 3 months after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Design: Cross-sectional analysis of an ongoing observational cohort. Setting: Five inpatient rehabilitation centers, with 3-month follow-up conducted primarily by telephone. Participants: Persons with TBI (N=160) enrolled in the resilience module of the TBI Model System study with 3-month follow-up completed. Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure: Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. Results: Resilience scores were lower than those of the general population. A multivariable regression model, adjusting for other predictors, showed that higher education, absence of preinjury substance abuse, and less anxiety at follow-up were significantly related to greater resilience. Conclusions: Analysis suggests that lack of resilience may be an issue for some individuals after moderate to severe TBI. Identifying persons most likely at risk for low resilience may be useful in planning clinical interventions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalArchives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
StateAccepted/In press - 2016


  • Brain injuries
  • Rehabilitation
  • Resilience, psychological

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rehabilitation
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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