Researching Identity Styles In Pakistan: Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Associations With Commitment and Value Priorities

Bushra Hassan, Vivian L. Vignoles, Seth J. Schwartz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Identity styles—informational, normative, and diffuse-avoidant—have been studied widely across North America and Europe but infrequently in “non-Western” cultures. We tested the factorial structure of the Identity Styles Inventory-5 (ISI-5) among 479 young adults in Pakistan. Findings supported the predicted three-factor solution, but only when numerous poorly performing items were deleted. We further tested associations among identity styles, identity commitment, and value priorities. As expected, informational and normative styles were associated with higher commitment, whereas diffuse-avoidant style was associated with lower commitment. The three identity styles showed a pattern of divergent associations with value priorities that mostly, but not entirely, replicated the pattern of associations previously found among U.S. and European samples. We conclude that Berzonsky’s three identity styles can be detected in a Pakistani cultural context but that the ISI-5 may not fully capture the breadth and complexity of identity formation processes among Pakistani youth.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)232-246
Number of pages15
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 3 2018



  • Identity styles
  • Pakistan
  • commitment
  • confirmatory factor analysis
  • culture
  • value orientations

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anthropology
  • Sociology and Political Science

Cite this