Renal function in the freshwater rainbow trout after dietary cadmium acclimation and waterborne cadmium challenge

M. Jasim Chowdhury, Chris M. Wood

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

21 Scopus citations

Abstract

Renal function was examined in adult rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after chronic exposure to a sublethal level of dietary Cd (500 mg/kg diet) for 52 d and during a subsequent challenge to waterborne Cd (10 μg/L) for 72 h. Dietary Cd had no major effects on UFR (urine flow rate) and GFR (glomerular filtration rate) but caused increased renal excretion of glucose, protein, and major ions (Mg2+, Zn2+, K+, Na+, Cl- but Ca2+). However, dietary Cd did not affect any plasma ions except Na+ which was significantly elevated in the Cd-acclimated trout. Plasma glucose and ammonia levels fell by 25% and 36% respectively, but neither plasma nor urine urea was affected in Cd-acclimated fish. Dietary Cd exposure resulted in a remarkable increase of Cd load in the plasma (48-fold, ∼ 22 ng/mL) and urine (60-fold, 8.9 ng/mL), but Cd excretion via the kidney was negligible on a mass-balance basis. Clearance ratio analysis indicates that all ions, Cd, and metabolites were reabsorbed strongly (58-100%) in both naïve and dietary Cd exposed fish, except ammonia which was secreted in both groups. Mg2+, Na+, Cl- and K+ reabsorption decreased significantly (3-15%) in the Cd-exposed fish relative to the control. Following waterborne Cd challenge, GFR and UFR were affected transiently, and only Mg2+ and protein excretion remained elevated with no recovery with time in Cd-acclimated trout. Urinary Ca2+ and Zn2+ excretion rates dropped with an indication of renal compensation towards plasma declines of both ions. Cadmium challenge did not cause any notable effects on urinary excretion rates of metabolites. However, a significant decrease in Mg2+ reabsorption but an increase in total ammonia secretion was observed in the Cd-acclimated fish. The study suggests that dietary Cd acclimation involves physiological costs in terms of renal dysfunction and elevated urinary losses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)321-332
Number of pages12
JournalComparative Biochemistry and Physiology - C Toxicology and Pharmacology
Volume145
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2007

Keywords

  • Acclimation
  • Fish
  • Kidney
  • Metal
  • Plasma ions
  • Renal function
  • Toxicity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Physiology
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Pharmacology

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