Current methods for differentiation of kidney disease types are unspecific and may be invasive. Thus, there is a need for development of new biomarkers of kidney disorders that are specific and less invasive. In this study, we analyzed serum samples of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and lupus nephritis (LN) patients to identify biomarkers of these two disorders. Serum samples were analyzed by Simple Plex assays. We calculated the area under the curve (AUC) as well as receiver operating characteristics (ROC) to obtain the sensitivity and specificity and other biomarker-related variables of apoptosis-Associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC), interleukin-(IL-) 18, Lipocalin-2/NGAL, epidermal growth factor (EGF), u-Plasminogen Activator (uPA), and C-reactive protein (CRP) as potential biomarkers. Protein levels of ASC, IL-18, EGF, and Lipocalin-2/NGAL were higher in DKD and LN patients when compared to controls, whereas only uPA was elevated in DKD patients and CRP in LN patients. As determined by the AUC, of the six analytes studied, EGF (AUC=0.9935), Lipocalin-2/NGAL (0.9554), ASC (0.7666), and uPA (0.7522) are reliable biomarkers of DKD, whereas EGF (1.000), Lipocalin-2/NGAL (0.9412), uPA (0.7443), and IL-18 (0.7384) are more reliable for LN. The biomarkers analyzed can differentiate between healthy and affected individuals. However, there was no difference between the levels of these biomarkers in DKD vs LN. Thus, although these biomarkers cannot be used to categorize patients between DKD and LN, they are useful as biomarkers of renal pathology.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology