Relationship of Ki-67 labeling index to DNA-ploidy, S-phase fraction, and outcome in prostate cancer treated with radiotherapy

Vincent S. Khoo, Alan Pollack, Didier Cowen, Daryl Lim Joon, Nalini Patel, Nicholas H.A. Terry, Gunar K. Zagars, Andrew C. Von Eschenbach, Marvin L. Meistrich, Patricia Troncoso

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

42 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND. Our purpose was to evaluate the relationship of Ki-67 labeling index (Ki67-LI) to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) ploidy, S phase fraction (SPF), other clinical prognostic factors, and clinical outcome for patients with prostate cancer treated by external beam radiotherapy. METHODS. Tissue was retrieved from 42 patients who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate before treatment with external beam radiotherapy between 1987-1993. DNA histogram profiles were classified as diploid (diploid + near- diploid) and nondiploid (tetraploid + aneuploid), immunohistochemical staining of Ki-67 by the MIB-1 monoclonal antibody was used to calculate Ki67-LI. Median patient follow-up was 62 months. Treatment failure was defined as two consecutive rises in serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or clinical evidence of disease recurrence. RESULTS. The mean and median Ki67- LIs were 3.1 and 2.4, respectively (range, 0-12.4). Mean Ki67-LI values were significantly associated with higher stage, Gleason score, and pretreatment PSA. Nondiploid tumors had significantly higher Ki67-LIs, as did patients who failed radiotherapy over the follow-up period. SPF was not significantly correlated with Ki67-LI. As a categorical variable, the most significant relationships were seen when Ki67-LI was subdivided into thirds around the median (Ki67-LI ≤1.5%, Ki67-LI >1.5-3.5%, and Ki67-LI >3.5%). This trichotomous variable correlated significantly with pretreatment PSA (P = 0.0008), tumor stage (P = 0.016), Gleason score (P = 0.024), and treatment failure (P = 0.0015), but not with DNA-ploidy (P = 0.15). In actuarial univariate analyses, Ki67-LI appeared to be a more significant predictor of patient outcome (P = 0.003) than DNA-ploidy (P=0.035). CONCLUSIONS. The Ki67- LI correlated with known prognostic factors such as pretreatment PSA, tumor stage, and Gleason score, and was also weakly related to DNA-ploidy. In comparison to DNA-ploidy, Ki67 LI seems to be a better correlate of treatment outcome.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)166-172
Number of pages7
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1999
Externally publishedYes


  • DNA-ploidy
  • Ki-67
  • MIB-1
  • Prostate cancer
  • Prostate-specific antigen
  • Radiotherapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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