We describe a 33-year-old homosexual man with a steroid-responsive, remitting and relapsing leukoencephalopathy associated with recent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) seroconversion. Biopsy of a parieto-occipital lesion revealed demyelination and astrogliosis with focal necrosis. Detailed investigations demonstrated no pathogens in the brain other than HIV-1. This patient illustrates that a neurological disorder clinically indistinguishable from multiple sclerosis may be the presenting manifestation of HIV-1 infection and may occur in the absence of clinically significant immunosuppression.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology