Rehabilitation therapy for patients with long-term spinal cord injuries

K. J. Klose, D. L. Schmidt, B. M. Needham, B. S. Brucker, B. A. Green, D. R. Ayyar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

23 Scopus citations


The functional effects of three types of therapy for subjects with long-term incomplete cervical spinal cord injuries were investigated. Men and women, aged 18 to 45 years, were assigned to one of four groups using a restricted randomization process. The training period was divided into two consecutive eight-week time blocks where subjects received either (1) supervised physical exercise therapy (PET), (2) neuromuscular stimulation (NMS), or (3) electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback. Group 1 received EMG biofeedback followed by PET; Group 2 received EMG biofeedback followed by NMS; Group 3 received NMS followed by PET; and Group 4 received 16 weeks of PET. Dependent measures (manual muscle tests, self-care scores, mobility measures, and voluntary EMG activity) were assessed before training, at eight weeks, and after 16 weeks of training. A significant improvement (p < .05) across time was found on all dependent measures except voluntary EMG. No difference was found on comparisons between groups.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)659-662
Number of pages4
JournalArchives of physical medicine and rehabilitation
Issue number9
StatePublished - Jan 1 1990



  • biofeedback
  • electrical stimulation
  • electromyography
  • exercise therapy
  • quadriplegia
  • spinal cord injuries

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rehabilitation

Cite this

Klose, K. J., Schmidt, D. L., Needham, B. M., Brucker, B. S., Green, B. A., & Ayyar, D. R. (1990). Rehabilitation therapy for patients with long-term spinal cord injuries. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation, 71(9), 659-662.