Regulation of granulocyte‐macrophage colony‐stimulating factor and interleukin 3 expression

Stephen D. Nimer, Hideo Uchida

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Scopus citations


Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin 3 (IL-3) are multilineage acting hematopoietic growth factors which have overlapping but distinct biological properties. Cellular sources of IL-3 are confined to activated T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, mast cells and possibly megakaryocytes, while these cells and activated macrophages, fibroblasts and endothelial cells are important sources of GM-CSF. In vitro studies have implicated both cytokines in the autocrine growth of human myeloid or murine mast cell leukemias. The human GM-CSF and IL-3 genes map to the long arm of chromosome 5, show similar genomic structures, and share several conserved elements in their 5' and 3' flanking regions. The promoters of these genes contain a variety of positive and negative regulatory regions, and the level of expression of these genes is controlled by both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)324-335
Number of pages12
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1995
Externally publishedYes


  • Autocrine growth
  • Gene regulation
  • GM-CSF
  • Human leukemia
  • IL-3
  • Promoter analysis
  • T cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cell Biology


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