A pivotal role has emerged for glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) as an important contributor to Alzheimer's disease pathology. Evidence for the involvement of GSK3 in Alzheimer's disease pathology and neuronal loss comes from studies of GSK3 overexpression, GSK3 localization studies, multiple relationships between GSK3 and amyloid -peptide (A), interactions between GSK3 and the microtubule-associated tau protein, and GSK3-mediated apoptotic cell death. Apoptotic signaling proceeds by either an intrinsic pathway or an extrinsic pathway. GSK3 is well established to promote intrinsic apoptotic signaling induced by many insults, several of which may contribute to neuronal loss in Alzheimer's disease. Particularly important is evidence that GSK3 promotes intrinsic apoptotic signaling induced by A. GSK3 appears to promote intrinsic apoptotic signaling by modulating proteins in the apoptosis signaling pathway and by modulating transcription factors that regulate the expression of proteins involved in apoptosis. Thus, GSK3 appears to contribute to several neuropathological mechanisms in Alzheimer's disease, including apoptosis-mediated neuronal loss.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Cognitive Neuroscience
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
- Behavioral Neuroscience