Replacement of damaged or diseased tissues represents one of the most challenging aspects of medicine. Within the urinary tract, tissue replacement is a technically demanding procedure. In particular, urethral reconstruction has posed a continuing challenge to the reconstructive urologist. Various surgical techniques utilizing flaps or grafts (genital/extragenital), whether single or multistage, have been used for urethral reconstruction with satisfactory results. Genital skin, however, is not always readily available and most graft harvesting procedures are technically demanding and time consuming. The development of an 'off-the-shelf' graft material may be the answer to this old urological dilemma. In this chapter, we review the current materials, whether synthetic or natural, that have been used in clinical or preclinical studies for the purpose of urethral reconstruction.
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