The kidney is a vital and complex organ that performs many critical functions [1-3]. It is responsible for filtering the body's wastes, such as urea, from the blood and excreting them as urine. In addition to the excretory function, the kidney maintains the body's homeostasis by regulating acid-base balance, blood pressure, and plasma volume. Moreover, it synthesizes 1, 25 vitamin D3, erythropoietin, glutathione, and free radical scavenging enzymes. It is also known that the kidney participates in the catabolism of low molecular weight proteins and in the production and regulation of cytokines [4-6]. There are many conditions where the kidney functions are diminished and these lead to renal failure. End stage renal failure is a devastating condition which involves multiple organs in affected individuals. Although dialysis can prolong survival via filtration, other kidney functions are not replaced, leading to long-term consequences such as anemia and malnutrition [2, 3, 7]. Currently, renal transplantation is the only definitive treatment that can restore full kidney function. However, transplantation has several limitations, such as critical donor shortage, complications due to chronic immunosuppressive therapy and graft failure [2, 3, 7].
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