Background. Intestinal transplantation is used in patients with short-bowel syndrome after repeated resections for Crohn's disease. We report the apparent clinical recurrence of Crohn's disease in a transplanted intestine. Methods and findings. The patient, a 33-year-old Hispanic woman, underwent small-bowel transplantation in December, 1994. Immunosuppression with tacrolimus, methylprednisolone, bone-marrow infusions, and OKT3 was given. In July, 1995, the patient had recurrent abdominal symptoms. The histological diagnosis of Crohn's disease was established by the independent interpretations of four experienced gastrointestinal histopathologists. Interpretation. The prompt appearance of this autoimmune disorder (within 6 months of transplantation), despite massive immunosuppression may provide important insights into the nature of Crohn's disease and of the recurrence of autoimmune disease during immunosuppression.
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