Reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligaments with bone-patellar tendon- bone and Achilles tendon allografts

R. L. Levitt, T. Malinin, A. Posada, A. Michalow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

56 Scopus citations


Two hundred fourteen patients had anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions performed with banked freeze-dried or frozen allografts using an arthroscopic-assisted technique. Of these, 181 patients were available for follow-up testing and examination. Minimum follow-up time was four years (average, 57 months). All patients were evaluated by using KT-1000 arthrometer and Biodex testing as well as by physical examination. Final results were rated as satisfactory or unsatisfactory by using a modified Feagin knee scoring scale. Patients who were classified as good or excellent were considered to have satisfactory results. Those who were classified as fair or poor were considered to have unsatisfactory results. During the course of the study, 79% of the patients had satisfactory results. The percentage of patients with satisfactory results increased as the study progressed. The surgical technique was modified as new biomechanical principles were applied to ACL reconstruction. Rehabilitation of the patients was also progressively changed from conservative to aggressive. The authors attribute the improvement from 67% of patients with satisfactory results in 1984 to 85% in 1988 at least partially to these modifications. It was concluded that either frozen or freeze-dried aseptically excised and processed bone-patellar tendon-bone and Achilles tendon allografts can serve adequately for the reconstruction of ACLs. Complications may be reduced and clinical end results improved by adherence to an exact, reproducible surgical technique and an aggressive rehabilitation regimen.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)67-78
Number of pages12
JournalClinical orthopaedics and related research
Issue number303
StatePublished - 1994
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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