Reassertion and giving up: The interactive role of self-directed attention and outcome expectancy

Charles S. Carver, Paul H. Blaney, Michael F. Scheier

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

124 Scopus citations


Two experiments with 108 female undergraduates tested a theoretical model of behavioral self-regulation, which makes predictions about the effect of failure on a person's subsequent efforts. This model holds that degree of effort will be a product of 2 things: expectancy of being able to redress the failure and degree of self-attention. In the experiments, a failure pretreatment was used to create large within-self discrepancies among Ss. It was predicted that (a) negative outcome expectancies regarding a subsequent task would lead to decreased persistence on that task, (b) positive outcome expectancies for the subsequent task would lead to increased persistence on that task, and (c) both of these tendencies would be mediated by self-directed attention. Results support the predictions. (39 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1859-1870
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of personality and social psychology
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1979


  • degree of self attention following failure, subsequent efforts, female college students
  • outcome expectancy &

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Social Psychology


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