To evaluate rates of reoperation and retinal detachment (RD) after macular hole surgery. Design Retrospective cross-sectional study. Participants Patients in the insurance claim-based MarketScan databases from 2007 through 2013 with a record of macular hole surgery. Methods Patients with macular hole surgery were identified. Cases of definite (the same eye was coded both times) and presumed (the eye laterality was not coded) macular hole reoperations within 2, 3, and 12 months were queried. In addition, cases of postoperative RD within 2, 3, and 12 months were captured. Main Outcome Measures Rates of macular hole reoperation and postoperative RD, including subgroup analysis based on presence or absence of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling. Results Records of 23465 macular hole surgeries among 20 764 patients were analyzed. Among presumed reoperations, the rates of reoperation were 4.3% (4.1% after ILM peeling and 5.0% after no ILM peeling; P = 0.01) within 2 months of surgery, 5.5% (5.3% after ILM peeling and 6.2% after no ILM peeling; P = 0.03) within 3 months of surgery, and 9.5% (9.0% after ILM peeling and 11.0% after no ILM peeling; P = 0.01) within 12 months of surgery. The rates for definite reoperations were 1.3% (1.2% after ILM peeling and 1.8% after no ILM peeling; P = 0.04) at 2 months, 1.7% (1.6% after ILM peeling and 2.5% after no ILM peeling; P = 0.004) at 3 months, and 4.1% (3.3% after ILM peeling and 7.5% after no ILM peeling; P <0.001) at 12 months. The cumulative rate of postoperative RD was 1.81±0.09% to 2.18±0.5% after 2 months, 2.27±0.10% to 3.18±0.67% after 3 months, and 3.92±0.16% to 5.70±1.1% after 12 months. Internal limiting membrane peeling was associated negatively with postoperative RD at 2 months (2.3% vs. 1.7%; P = 0.007), 3 months (2.8% vs. 2.1%; P = 0.004), and 12 months (4.7% vs. 3.3%; P <0.001). Conclusions In this sample, reoperations for macular hole were performed at low rates. Internal limiting membrane peeling was associated with lower rates of reoperation and RD.
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