Purpose To determine predictors of reoperation and abnormal binocularity outcomes (including amblyopia and diplopia) following pediatric strabismus surgery. Design Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods setting: Review of a national insurance database. study population: Children under age 18 years having strabismus procedures between 2007 and 2013. interventions: Adjustable- or fixed-suture strabismus surgery, or botulinum toxin injection. outcome measures: Reoperation or diagnosis of abnormal binocularity in the first postoperative year. Results Of 11 115 children having strabismus procedures, 851 (7.7%) underwent reoperation. The reoperation rate was 7.4% for fixed-suture surgeries, 9.6% for adjustable-suture surgeries (P =.18), and 44.9% for botulinum injections (P <.001). Age under 2 years was associated with higher reoperation and abnormal binocularity rates (P <.001). For horizontal strabismus, the postoperative abnormal binocularity rate was 12.8% for fixed-suture surgery and 26.5% for botulinum injection (P =.005). Reoperation rates tended to be higher with adjustable sutures (odds ratio [OR] 1.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.94-3.03, P =.08) or botulinum toxin injection (OR 10.36, 95% CI 5.75-18.66, P <.001) and lower with 3- or 4-muscle surgery (P =.001). Esotropia, hyperopia, and botulinum injection were independently associated with higher rates of postoperative abnormal binocularity (P ≤.005). For vertical surgeries, predictors of reoperation were adjustable-suture use (OR 2.51, P =.10) and superior oblique surgery (OR 2.36, P <.001). Conclusions Adjustable sutures were not associated with a lower reoperation rate in children. Younger age, esotropia, hyperopia, and botulinum injection were associated with postoperative abnormal binocularity. Superior oblique surgery and botulinum injection were associated with higher rates of reoperation.
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