Rates of hospitalization and infection-related hospitalization among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed uninfected children compared to HIV-unexposed uninfected children in the United States, 2007-2016

Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background. Studies from multiple countries have suggested impaired immunity in perinatally human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed uninfected children (HEU), with elevated rates of all-cause hospitalization and infections. We estimated and compared the incidence of all-cause hospitalization and infection-related hospitalization in the first 2 years of life among HEU and HIV-unexposed uninfected children (HUU) in the United States. Among HEU, we evaluated associations of maternal HIV disease-related factors during pregnancy with risk of child hospitalization. Methods. HEU data from subjects enrolled in the Surveillance Monitoring for Antiretroviral Therapy Toxicities Study (SMARTT) cohort who were born during 2006-2017 were analyzed. HUU comparison data were obtained from the Medicaid Analytic Extract database, restricted to states participating in SMARTT. We compared rates of first hospitalization, total hospitalizations, first infection-related hospitalization, total infection-related hospitalizations, and mortality between HEU and HUU using Poisson regression. Among HEU, multivariable Poisson regression models were fitted to evaluate associations of maternal HIV factors with risk of hospitalization. Results. A total of 2404 HEU and 3 605 864 HUU were included in the analysis. HEU children had approximately 2 times greater rates of first hospitalization, total hospitalizations, first infection-related hospitalization, and total infection-related hospitalizations compared with HUUs. There was no significant difference in mortality. Maternal HIV disease factors were not associated with the risk of child infection or hospitalization. Conclusions. Compared with HUU, HEU children in the United States have higher rates of hospitalization and infection-related hospitalization in the first 2 years of life, consistent with studies in other countries. Closer monitoring of HEU infants for infection and further elucidation of immune mechanisms is needed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)332-339
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Volume71
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2020

Keywords

  • HEU
  • HIV
  • Immunology
  • Pediatrics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

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