Rapid and/or high-throughput genotyping for human red blood cell, platelet and leukocyte antigens, and forensic applications

Yan Yun Wu, Gyorgy Csako

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


Background: Traditionally, transfusion medicine, platelet and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing, and forensic medicine relied on serologic studies. Methods: In recent years, molecular testing on nucleic acids has been increasingly applied to these areas. Although conventional molecular diagnostic methods such as PCR-sequence-specific priming, PCR-restriction fragment-length polymorphism, PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism, sequence-based typing, and DNA fingerprinting have been shown to perform well, their use is limited by long turnaround times, high cost, labor-intensiveness, the need for special technical skills, and/or the high risk of amplicon contamination. With advance of fast and/or high-throughput methods and platforms that often combine amplification and detection, a new era of molecular genotyping is emerging in these fields dominated by serology for a century. As new targets, short tandem repeats, mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome sequences were introduced for forensic applications. This article reviews the current status of the application of rapid and/or high-throughput genotyping methods to these areas. Results: The results are already promising with real-time PCR, pyrosequencing, microarrays, and mass spectrometry and show high concordance rates with classic serologic and earlier manual molecular diagnostic methods. Exploration of other emerging methodologies will likely further enhance the diagnostic utility of molecular testing in these areas.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)165-176
Number of pages12
JournalClinica Chimica Acta
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - Jan 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Mass spectrometry
  • Microarray
  • Mitochondrial DNA
  • Pyrosequencing
  • Real-time PCR
  • Short tandem repeats (STRs)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Biochemistry, medical


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