Randomized trial of liposomal amikacin for inhalation in nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease

Kenneth N. Olivier, David E. Griffith, Gina Eagle, John P. McGinnis, Liza Micioni, Keith Liu, Charles L. Daley, Kevin L. Winthrop, Stephen Ruoss, Doreen J. Addrizzo-Harris, Patrick A. Flume, Daniel Dorgan, Matthias Salathe, Barbara A. Brown-Elliott, Renu Gupta, Richard J. Wallace

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

92 Scopus citations

Abstract

Rationale: Lengthy,multidrug, toxic, and low-efficacy regimens limit management of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease. Objectives: In this phase II study, we investigated the efficacy and safety of liposomal amikacin for inhalation (LAI) in treatmentrefractory pulmonary nontuberculousmycobacterial (Mycobacterium avium complex [MAC] or Mycobacterium abscessus) disease. Methods: During the double-blind phase, patients were randomly assigned to LAI (590 mg) or placebo once daily added to their multidrug regimen for 84 days. Both groups could receive open-label LAI for 84 additional days. The primary endpoint was change from baseline to Day 84 on a semiquantitative mycobacterial growth scale. Other endpoints included sputum conversion, 6-minute-walk distance, and adverse events. Measurements and Main Results: The modified intention-totreat population included 89 (LAI = 44; placebo = 45) patients. The average age of the sample was 59 years; 88% were female; 92% were white; and 80 and 59 patients completed study drug dosing during the double-blind and open-label phases, respectively. The primary endpoint was not achieved (P = 0.072); however, a greater proportion of the LAI group demonstrated at least one negative sputum culture (14 [32%] of 44 vs. 4 [9%] of 45; P = 0.006) and improvement in 6-minute-walk test (120.6 m vs. 225.0 m; P = 0.017) at Day 84. A treatment effect was seen predominantly in patients without cystic fibrosis with MAC and was sustained 1 year after LAI. Most adverse events were respiratory, and in some patients it led to drug discontinuation. Conclusions: Although the primary endpoint was not reached, LAI added to a multidrug regimen produced improvements in sputum conversion and 6-minute-walk distance versus placebo with limited systemic toxicity in patients with refractory MAC lung disease. Further research in this area is needed. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01315236).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)814-823
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican journal of respiratory and critical care medicine
Volume195
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 15 2017

Keywords

  • Culture conversion
  • Efficacy
  • Nontuberculous mycobacteria
  • Safety

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

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