Randomized, double-blind trial of anidulafungin versus fluconazole for prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections in high-risk liver transplant recipients

D. J. Winston, A. P. Limaye, S. Pelletier, N. Safdar, M. I. Morris, K. Meneses, R. W. Busuttil, N. Singh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

43 Scopus citations

Abstract

Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are a common complication in liver transplant recipients. There are no previous randomized trials of an echinocandin for the prevention of IFIs in solid organ transplant recipients. In a randomized, double-blind trial conducted at University-affiliated transplant centers, 200 high-risk liver transplant recipients (100 patients per group) received either anidulafungin or fluconazole for antifungal prophylaxis. Randomization was stratified by Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score ≥30 and receipt of a pretransplant antifungal agent. The primary end point was IFI in a modified intent-to-treat analysis. The overall incidence of IFI was similar for the anidulafungin (5.1%) and the fluconazole groups (8.0%) (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.19-1.94, p-=-0.40). However, anidulafungin prophylaxis was associated with less Aspergillus colonization or infection (3% vs. 9%, p-=-0.08), lower breakthrough IFIs among patients who had received pretransplant fluconazole (0% vs. 27%, p-=-0.07), and fewer cases of antifungal resistance (no cases vs. 5 cases). Both drugs were well-tolerated. Graft rejection, fungal-free survival, and mortality were similar for both groups. Thus, anidulafungin and fluconazole have similar efficacy for antifungal prophylaxis in most liver transplant recipients. Anidulafungin may be beneficial if the patient has an increased risk for Aspergillus infection or received fluconazole before transplantation. This randomized, double-blind trial shows that anidulafungin and fluconazole have similar efficacy for antifungal prophylaxis in most liver transplant recipients at high risk for invasive fungal infections, although anidulafungin may be beneficial for patients who have an increased risk for Aspergillus infection or received fluconazole before transplantation. See editorial by Huprikar on page 2683.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2758-2764
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican Journal of Transplantation
Volume14
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2014

Keywords

  • Clinical research/practice
  • fungal
  • infection and infectious agents
  • infectious disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Transplantation
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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