Randomized controlled trial of feeding a concentrated formula to infants born to women infected by human immunodeficiency virus

Harland S. Winter, James M. Oleske, Michael D. Hughes, Ross E. McKinney, Carol Elgie, Christine Powell, Lynette Purdue, Ana M. Puga, Eleanor Jimenez, Gwendolyn B. Scott, Maria Leticia Santos Cruz, Jack Moye

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Objective:: We tested the hypothesis that concentrated formula (CF) begun within the first 2 weeks of life increases growth in infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected mothers. Materials and Methods:: HIV-exposed infants from the United States, the Bahamas, and Brazil were randomized in a double-blind, controlled trial to receive either a CF (87 kcal/100 mL [26 kcal/oz]) or a standard formula (SF; 67 kcal/100 mL [20 kcal/oz]) for 8 weeks. This article presents results for infants who were not determined to be HIV infected based on testing at 4 weeks. Primary outcomes were safety, tolerability, and growth in weight and length. Results:: Two thousand ninety-seven infants were enrolled, of whom 1998 were uninfected and had study formula dispensed. At weeks 4 and 8, uninfected infants receiving CF showed higher energy intake than those who were receiving SF (P < 0.001). By week 8, uninfected infants assigned to CF weighed more than infants receiving SF. There were no consistent differences in measures of tolerability, and rates of discontinuation or perceived formula intolerance were similar between treatment groups. Conclusions:: A CF is well tolerated and results in increased weight gain compared with SF. Until the HIV status of an infant is reliably determined, early introduction of a CF in HIV-exposed children may have beneficial effects on growth. The role of early nutritional intervention remains to be determined for individuals living in countries with endemic malnutrition for whom formula feeding is a viable option.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)222-232
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 2009


  • AIDS
  • HIV
  • Nutrition

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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