Radiosurgery for unruptured intervention-naïve pediatric brain arteriovenous malformations

Ching Jen Chen, Cheng Chia Lee, Hideyuki Kano, Kathryn N. Kearns, Dale Ding, Shih Wei Tzeng, Ahmet Fatih Atik, Krishna Joshi, Paul P. Huang, Douglas Kondziolka, Natasha Ironside, David Mathieu, Christian Iorio-Morin, Inga S. Grills, Thomas J. Quinn, Zaid A. Siddiqui, Kim Marvin, Caleb Feliciano, Robert M. Starke, Andrew FaramandGene Barnett, L. Dade Lunsford, Jason P. Sheehan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: Long-term data regarding stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) as a standalone therapy for unruptured pediatric brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are incompletely defined. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate, in a multicenter, retrospective cohort study, the outcomes after SRS for unruptured, intervention-naïve pediatric AVMs. METHODS: To retrospectively analyze the International Radiosurgery Research Foundation pediatric AVM database from 1987 to 2018. Pediatric patients with unruptured, previously untreated AVMs who underwent SRS were included. The primary endpoint was a composite of hemorrhagic stroke, death, or permanently symptomatic radiation-induced changes. RESULTS: The study cohort comprised 101 patients (mean follow-up 80.8 mo). The primary endpoint occurred in 14%, comprising hemorrhagic stroke, death, and permanent radiation-induced changes in 6%, 3%, and 8%, respectively. Estimated probabilities of the primary endpoint were 5.2%, 10.8%, and 23.0% at 2, 5, and 10 yr, respectively. Estimated probabilities of AVM obliteration at 5 and 10 yr were 64% and 82%, respectively. Single SRS treatment (P = .007) and higher margin dose (P = .005) were predictors of obliteration. Subgroup analysis of Spetzler-Martin grade I-III AVMs estimated primary endpoint probabilities of 3.7%, 8.4%, and 18.7% at 2, 5, and 10 yr, respectively. CONCLUSION: Treatment of unruptured, intervention-naïve AVMs in the pediatric population with SRS carries an approximately 2% annual risk of morbidity and mortality, which appears to plateau after 10 yr. The poorly described natural history of pediatric AVMs renders any comparison of SRS vs conservative management imperfect.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)368-376
Number of pages9
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 1 2020


  • Arteriovenous malformation
  • Pediatric
  • Radiation
  • Radiosurgery
  • Stroke
  • Unruptured

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology


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