Background and Purpose - Atherosclerotic intracranial stenosis is an important cause of stroke in blacks, yet there are limited data on vascular risk factors and outcome. We analyzed the vascular risk factors and outcomes of blacks and whites in the Warfarin versus Aspirin for Symptomatic Intracranial Disease (WASID) trial. Methods - Baseline characteristics and outcomes (ischemic stroke, brain hemorrhage, or vascular death combined and ischemic stroke alone) were compared between blacks (n=174) and whites (n=331) using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results - Blacks were significantly (P<0.05) more likely than whites to be/have: female, hypertension history, diabetes history, higher LDL, higher total cholesterol, lower triglycerides, unmarried, unemployed, nonprivate insurance, no insurance, stroke as qualifying event, <70% stenosis, symptomatic anterior circulation vessel, no antithrombotic medication before qualifying event, and no family history of myocardial infarction. Blacks more frequently reached an end point of ischemic stroke, brain hemorrhage or vascular death (28% versus 20%; hazard ratio of 1.49, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.17, P=0.03), had a higher 2-year event rate (0.28 versus 0.19), and reached the end point of ischemic stroke alone (25% versus 16% at 2 years; hazard ratio of 1.62, P=0.017). In multivariate analysis, race was associated with ischemic stroke (P=0.0488) but not with the end point ischemic stroke, brain hemorrhage or vascular death (P=0.188). Conclusions - Blacks with intracranial stenosis are at higher risk of stroke recurrence than whites. This risk warrants additional study of factors contributing to stroke in blacks and highlights the need for aggressive risk factor management in blacks to prevent recurrence.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Advanced and Specialized Nursing