Race and Gender Equity in Sports: Have White and African American Females Benefited Equally From Title IX?

Moneque Walker Pickett, Marvin P. Dawkins, Jomills Henry Braddock

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Males have been the dominant focus of sports participation in America since the 19th century. Serious examination of women's participation in sports did not begin to receive substantial treatment until the early 1970s, when social and legal forces led to the enactment of Title IX of the 1972 Education Amendments to the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The purpose of the present study is to address the question of whether Black and White women have benefited equally from Title IX by (a) examining Post-Title IX trends in Black and White females' sport participation in high school and college, using data from national longitudinal surveys; (b) assessing the effect of race on sport participation opportunities for high school girls based on these data:, and (c) examining legal cases involving Title IX to assess the extent to which legal challenges have improved access to and participation of Black women in sports relative to their White female counterparts. The findings of the current study reveal that this benefit has not been shared equally by White and African American females. High schools attended by African American females do not offer the same range of sports as those available in schools attended by White females.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1581-1603
Number of pages23
JournalAmerican Behavioral Scientist
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2012


  • gender
  • middle classes
  • race relations
  • sociology of sport

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Cultural Studies
  • Education
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Social Sciences(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Race and Gender Equity in Sports: Have White and African American Females Benefited Equally From Title IX?'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this