Questionnaires for outcome expectancy, self-regulation, and behavioral expectation for resistance training among young-old adults: Development and preliminary validity

David M. Williams, Jyoti Savla, Brenda M. Davy, Sarah A. Kelleher, Elaina L. Marinik, Richard A. Winett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Scopus citations


The purpose of the present research was to develop questionnaires to assess outcome expectancy for resistance training (RT), behavioral expectation in the context of perceived barriers to RT, and self-regulation strategies for RT among young-old adults (50-69 years). Measurement development included (a) item generation through elicitation interviews (N = 14) and open-ended questionnaires (N = 56), (b) expert feedback on a preliminary draft of the questionnaires (N = 4), and (c) a quantitative longitudinal study for item-reduction and psychometric analyses (N = 94). Elicitation procedures, expert feedback, and item reduction yielded four questionnaires with a total of 33 items. Positive outcome expectancy (α =.809), negative outcome expectancy (α =.729), behavioral expectation (α =.925), and self-regulation (α =.761) had-with one exception-moderate bivariate associations with two different indicators of self-reported RT behavior at one-month follow-up (r =.298 to.506). The present research provides preliminary support for newly developed questionnaires to facilitate understanding of the psychosocial determinants of RT among young-old adults.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)279-285
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Aging and Physical Activity
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 1 2015
Externally publishedYes



  • Elicitation interviews
  • Reliability
  • Social cognitive framework
  • Validity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Gerontology
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Rehabilitation

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