Quantitation of proteinuria with urinary protein/creatinine ratios and random testing with dipsticks in nephrotic children

Carolyn Abitbol, Gaston Zilleruelo, Michael Frendlich, Jose Strauss

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

93 Scopus citations

Abstract

We examined the relative feasibility of using random urinary dipstick testiing and urinary protein/creatinine ratios in the quantitation of proteinuria. Sixty-four children with relapsing nephrotic syndrome, ranging in age from 1 1/2 to 16 years, contributed 145 timed urine collections and 150 random specimens, which were analyzed by urinary protein dipstick, quantitation of protein and creatininne, or both. Total protein excretion was expressed as grams per surface area per day and the urinary protein/creatinine ratio as milligrams of protein per milligram of creatinine. Degrees of proteinuria were designated as physiologic (<0.01 gm/m2/day), intermediate (>0.1 and <1.0 gm/m2/day), or nephrotic (>1.0 gm/m2/day). The log regression analysis of the 24-hour urinary protein/creatinine ratio (y) and total protein excretion (x) was highly significant (r=0.97; p<0.001). The upper and lower confidence linmits of the urinary protein/creatinine ratio (1.0 and 0.1, respectively) closely approximated the designations for nephrotic and physiologic proteinuria, respectively. These values were therefore used to classify degrees of proteinuria by the urine protein/creatinine ratio. The validity of these tests was assessed by sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value, and comapred with that of random testing by urinary dipstick. The urinary protein/creatinine ratio offered good reliability as a test for classifying degrees of proteinuria and accurately predicting nephrotic and physiologic proteinuria. The random dipstick testing was reliable only when results were distinctly positive and when sensitivity and specificity were low. The error in the total protein excretion value that was imposed by collection errors with high and low variations in the creatinine value (57% of samples) was largely corrected by normalization of the data by log transformation. when controlled for creatinine excretion, linear regression analysis allowed calculation of total protein excretion (TP) from the urinary protein/creatinine ratio (U P/Cr) by the following equation: TP (gm/m2/day)=0.63 (U P/Cr) at all levels of proteinuria. The random urinary protein/creatinine ratio appeared to offer the most sensitive test for classification of proteinuria in children with nephrosis, with the advantages of ease and expediency not afforded by the 24-hour urine quantitation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)243-247
Number of pages5
JournalThe Journal of Pediatrics
Volume116
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1990

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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