Quantifying Subjective and Objective Measures of Singing After Different Warm-Up Durations

Frank W. Ragsdale, Judy O. Marchman, Michelle M. Bretl, Jennylee Diaz, David E. Rosow, Mursalin Anis, Hang Zhang, Mario A. Landera, Adam T. Lloyd

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background: Performing vocal warm-ups prior to singing repertoire has been shown to change the perceived quality and acoustic parameters of the voice. To date, there are no studies that specifically compare singers’ and listeners’ perceptions of vocal quality after various warm-up durations. Objective: To determine if specific warm-up durations (0, 5, 10, or 15 minutes) change subjective and objective measures of voice. Study Design: Prospective cohort study. Methods: Information related to demographics, singing practice, medical history, and vocal hygiene were collected. First- and second-year collegiate classical voice majors completed a series of four warm-up times, 1 week apart, prior to singing Caro mio ben in a standard key for their voice type. A modified Voice Range Profile (mVRP), and the Evaluation of the Ability to Sing Easily (EASE) scale were completed. Participants blindly rated 30-second recorded audio clips using the Auditory-Perceptual Rating Instrument for Operatic Singing. Four independent expert blinded listeners rated all audio clips for each participant in random order. Results: Six first-year and three second-year classical vocal performance majors completed all measures. Results of the EASE scale showed decreased scores with 5- and 10-minute warm-up duration, compared to 0 and 15 minutes of warm-up (P = 0.029 for the total EASE score and P = 0.044 for Rasch score). Delayed perceptual analysis of voice yielded nearly equal medians between warm-up durations for both self and expert-listener ratings. The mVRP showed that both 5 and 10 minutes of warm-up duration led to increased highest fundamental frequency for females (P = 0.017). Conclusion: This pilot study demonstrates the immediate self-perceived benefit for all participants and increased frequency range for females after performing 5 and 10 minutes of vocal warm-up. No significant differences were found in delayed perceptual analyses completed by the participants or the expert raters after the different warm-up durations. Future investigations should include a larger population and different levels of education and genres of singing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Voice
StateAccepted/In press - 2020


  • Singing
  • Vocal pedagogy
  • Vocal warm-up
  • Voice
  • Voice perception

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Speech and Hearing
  • LPN and LVN


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