QT-RR hysteresis is caused by differential autonomic states during exercise and recovery

Daniel J. Pelchovitz, Jason Ng, Alexandru B. Chicos, Daniel W. Bergner, Jeffrey J. Goldberger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

18 Scopus citations

Abstract

QT-RR hysteresis is characterized by longer QT intervals at a given RR interval while heart rates are increasing during exercise and shorter QT intervals at the same RR interval while heart rates are decreasing during recovery. It has been attributed to a lagging QT response to different directional changes in RR interval during exercise and recovery. Twenty control subjects (8 males, age 51 ±6 yr), 16 subjects with type 2 diabetes (12 males, age 56 ± 8 yr), 71 subjects with coronary artery disease (CAD) and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (>50%) (51 males, age 59 ± 12 yr), and 17 CAD subjects with depressed LVEF (<50%) (13 males, age 57 ± 10 yr) underwent two 16-min exercise tests followed by recovery. In session 2, parasympathetic blockade with atropine (0.04 mg/kg) was achieved at end exercise. QT-RR hysteresis was quantified as: 1) the area bounded by the QT-RR relationships for exercise and recovery in the range of the minimum RR interval at peak exercise to the minimum RR interval + 100 ms and 2) the difference in QT interval duration between exercise and recovery at the minimum RR interval achieved during peak exercise plus 50 ms (AQT). The effect of parasympathetic blockade was assessed by substituting the QT-RR relationship after parasympathetic blockade. QT-RR hysteresis was positive in all groups at baseline and reversed by parasympathetic blockade (P < 0.01). We conclude that QT-RR hysteresis is not caused by different directional changes in RR interval during exercise and recovery. Instead, it is predominantly mediated by differential autonomic nervous system effects as the heart rate increases during exercise vs. as it decreases during recovery.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2567-2573
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Volume302
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 15 2012
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Autonomic
  • Electrophysiology
  • Exercise
  • Nervous system

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)

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