Pulmonary mechanics in normal infants and young children during first 5 years of life.

T. Gerhardt, D. Hehre, R. Feller, L. Reifenberg, Eduardo Bancalari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

52 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

To characterize lung function in young children we measured lung compliance and pulmonary conductance in 40 normal infants and children ranging in age from the newborn period to 5 years. Inspiratory and expiratory flow was measured by a pneumotachograph, esophageal pressure through a water-filled feeding tube, and functional residual capacity (FRC) by a N2 washout technique. The esophageal pressure change per breath [(mean +/- SD) 7.3 +/- 1.4 cm H2O] and specific compliance (75 +/- 13 ml/cm H2O/L-FRC) did not change with growth. Specific conductance was high (0.60 L/s/cm H2O/L-FRC) in preterm infants, decreasing rapidly with initial growth but minimally beyond 10 kg of body weight, and stabilizing at 0.10 L/s/cm H2O/L-FRC. During the age period studied, compliance increased approximately x 25 whereas conductance only rose five-fold. The changes in compliance and conductance were well correlated to FRC, body weight, and length. These findings suggest that in the last trimester of pregnancy the airways are already well developed and postnatal lung growth occurs mainly by formation of new alveoli, leading to a proportional increase in FRC and lung compliance. Postnatally, conductance increases much more slowly than FRC, resulting in a rapid drop in specific conductance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)309-316
Number of pages8
JournalPediatric Pulmonology
Volume3
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 1 1987

Fingerprint

Functional Residual Capacity
Mechanics
Lung
Compliance
Lung Compliance
Growth
Body Weight
Pressure
Third Pregnancy Trimester
Enteral Nutrition
Premature Infants
Newborn Infant
Pregnancy
Water

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine

Cite this

Pulmonary mechanics in normal infants and young children during first 5 years of life. / Gerhardt, T.; Hehre, D.; Feller, R.; Reifenberg, L.; Bancalari, Eduardo.

In: Pediatric Pulmonology, Vol. 3, No. 5, 01.09.1987, p. 309-316.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gerhardt, T, Hehre, D, Feller, R, Reifenberg, L & Bancalari, E 1987, 'Pulmonary mechanics in normal infants and young children during first 5 years of life.', Pediatric Pulmonology, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 309-316.
Gerhardt, T. ; Hehre, D. ; Feller, R. ; Reifenberg, L. ; Bancalari, Eduardo. / Pulmonary mechanics in normal infants and young children during first 5 years of life. In: Pediatric Pulmonology. 1987 ; Vol. 3, No. 5. pp. 309-316.
@article{ecf1b9329b014bdda6098703be7d1b6f,
title = "Pulmonary mechanics in normal infants and young children during first 5 years of life.",
abstract = "To characterize lung function in young children we measured lung compliance and pulmonary conductance in 40 normal infants and children ranging in age from the newborn period to 5 years. Inspiratory and expiratory flow was measured by a pneumotachograph, esophageal pressure through a water-filled feeding tube, and functional residual capacity (FRC) by a N2 washout technique. The esophageal pressure change per breath [(mean +/- SD) 7.3 +/- 1.4 cm H2O] and specific compliance (75 +/- 13 ml/cm H2O/L-FRC) did not change with growth. Specific conductance was high (0.60 L/s/cm H2O/L-FRC) in preterm infants, decreasing rapidly with initial growth but minimally beyond 10 kg of body weight, and stabilizing at 0.10 L/s/cm H2O/L-FRC. During the age period studied, compliance increased approximately x 25 whereas conductance only rose five-fold. The changes in compliance and conductance were well correlated to FRC, body weight, and length. These findings suggest that in the last trimester of pregnancy the airways are already well developed and postnatal lung growth occurs mainly by formation of new alveoli, leading to a proportional increase in FRC and lung compliance. Postnatally, conductance increases much more slowly than FRC, resulting in a rapid drop in specific conductance.",
author = "T. Gerhardt and D. Hehre and R. Feller and L. Reifenberg and Eduardo Bancalari",
year = "1987",
month = "9",
day = "1",
language = "English",
volume = "3",
pages = "309--316",
journal = "Pediatric Pulmonology",
issn = "8755-6863",
publisher = "Wiley-Liss Inc.",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Pulmonary mechanics in normal infants and young children during first 5 years of life.

AU - Gerhardt, T.

AU - Hehre, D.

AU - Feller, R.

AU - Reifenberg, L.

AU - Bancalari, Eduardo

PY - 1987/9/1

Y1 - 1987/9/1

N2 - To characterize lung function in young children we measured lung compliance and pulmonary conductance in 40 normal infants and children ranging in age from the newborn period to 5 years. Inspiratory and expiratory flow was measured by a pneumotachograph, esophageal pressure through a water-filled feeding tube, and functional residual capacity (FRC) by a N2 washout technique. The esophageal pressure change per breath [(mean +/- SD) 7.3 +/- 1.4 cm H2O] and specific compliance (75 +/- 13 ml/cm H2O/L-FRC) did not change with growth. Specific conductance was high (0.60 L/s/cm H2O/L-FRC) in preterm infants, decreasing rapidly with initial growth but minimally beyond 10 kg of body weight, and stabilizing at 0.10 L/s/cm H2O/L-FRC. During the age period studied, compliance increased approximately x 25 whereas conductance only rose five-fold. The changes in compliance and conductance were well correlated to FRC, body weight, and length. These findings suggest that in the last trimester of pregnancy the airways are already well developed and postnatal lung growth occurs mainly by formation of new alveoli, leading to a proportional increase in FRC and lung compliance. Postnatally, conductance increases much more slowly than FRC, resulting in a rapid drop in specific conductance.

AB - To characterize lung function in young children we measured lung compliance and pulmonary conductance in 40 normal infants and children ranging in age from the newborn period to 5 years. Inspiratory and expiratory flow was measured by a pneumotachograph, esophageal pressure through a water-filled feeding tube, and functional residual capacity (FRC) by a N2 washout technique. The esophageal pressure change per breath [(mean +/- SD) 7.3 +/- 1.4 cm H2O] and specific compliance (75 +/- 13 ml/cm H2O/L-FRC) did not change with growth. Specific conductance was high (0.60 L/s/cm H2O/L-FRC) in preterm infants, decreasing rapidly with initial growth but minimally beyond 10 kg of body weight, and stabilizing at 0.10 L/s/cm H2O/L-FRC. During the age period studied, compliance increased approximately x 25 whereas conductance only rose five-fold. The changes in compliance and conductance were well correlated to FRC, body weight, and length. These findings suggest that in the last trimester of pregnancy the airways are already well developed and postnatal lung growth occurs mainly by formation of new alveoli, leading to a proportional increase in FRC and lung compliance. Postnatally, conductance increases much more slowly than FRC, resulting in a rapid drop in specific conductance.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0023409239&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0023409239&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

VL - 3

SP - 309

EP - 316

JO - Pediatric Pulmonology

JF - Pediatric Pulmonology

SN - 8755-6863

IS - 5

ER -