Psychosocial predictors of non-adherence and treatment failure in a large scale multi-national trial of antiretroviral therapy for HIV: Data from the ACTG A5175/PEARLS trial

Steven A. Safren, Katie B. Biello, Laura Smeaton, Matthew J. Mimiaga, Ann Walawander, Javier R. Lama, Aadia Rana, Mulinda Nyirenda, Virginia M. Kayoyo, Wadzanai Samaneka, Anjali Joglekar, David Celentano, Ana Martinez, Jocelyn E. Remmert, Aspara Nair, Umesh G. Lalloo, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, James Hakim, Thomas B. Campbell

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Abstract

Background: PEARLS, a large scale trial of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV (n = 1,571, 9 countries, 4 continents), found that a once-daily protease inhibitor (PI) based regimen (ATV+DDI+FTC), but not a once-daily non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor/nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI/NRTI) regimen (EFV+FTC/TDF), had inferior efficacy compared to a standard of care twice-daily NNRTI/NRTI regimen (EFV+3TC/ZDV). The present study examined non-adherence in PEARLS. Methods: Outcomes: non-adherence assessed by pill count and by self-report, and time to treatment failure. Longitudinal predictors: regimen, quality of life (general health perceptions = QOL-health, mental health = QOL-mental health), social support, substance use, binge drinking, and sexual behaviors. "Life-Steps" adherence counseling was provided. Results: In both pill-count and self-report multivariable models, both once-a-day regimens had lower levels of non-adherence than the twice-a-day standard of care regimen; although these associations attenuated with time in the self-report model. In both multivariable models, hard-drug use was associated with non-adherence, living in Africa and better QOL-health were associated with less non-adherence. According to pill-count, unprotected sex was associated with non-adherence. According to self-report, soft-drug use was associated with non-adherence and living in Asia was associated with less non-adherence. Both pill-count (HR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.15, 2.09, p<.01) and self-report (HR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.13, p<.01) non-adherence were significant predictors of treatment failure over 72 weeks. In multivariable models (including pillcount or self-report nonadherence), worse QOL-health, age group (younger), and region were also significant predictors of treatment failure. Conclusion: In the context of a large, multi-national, multi-continent, clinical trial there were variations in adherence over time, with more simplified regimens generally being associated with better adherence. Additionally, variables such as QOL-health, regimen, drug-use, and region play a role. Self-report and pill-count adherence, as well as additional psychosocial variables, such QOL-health, age, and region, were, in turn, associated with treatment failure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere104178
JournalPloS one
Volume9
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 25 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • General

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    Safren, S. A., Biello, K. B., Smeaton, L., Mimiaga, M. J., Walawander, A., Lama, J. R., Rana, A., Nyirenda, M., Kayoyo, V. M., Samaneka, W., Joglekar, A., Celentano, D., Martinez, A., Remmert, J. E., Nair, A., Lalloo, U. G., Kumarasamy, N., Hakim, J., & Campbell, T. B. (2014). Psychosocial predictors of non-adherence and treatment failure in a large scale multi-national trial of antiretroviral therapy for HIV: Data from the ACTG A5175/PEARLS trial. PloS one, 9(8), [e104178]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0104178