Purpose: Pseudocarcinomatous urothelial hyperplasia is rare and almost exclusively described in the pathology literature. Materials and Methods: We reviewed 70 cases during a 9.5-year period. Results: Two specimens were taken from biopsies done at our institution and 68 were from cases referred for consultation. Samples were obtained from a total of 60 men and 10 women with a mean age of 67 years (range 33 to 85). Of 68 patients with information available 52 (76.5%) underwent prior pelvic irradiation, 2 received systemic chemotherapy only, 3 had an indwelling bladder catheter, 2 received intravesical chemotherapy, 1 had been treated with radical prostatectomy, 4 had severe peripheral vascular disease, 1 had an arteriovenous malformation, 1 had sickle cell disease and only 2 (2.9%) had no identifiable contributing factors. Pseudocarcinomatous urothelial hyperplasia developed an average of 54.6 months (range 9 months to 13 years) after prior irradiation. Hematuria was the most common clinical presentation, noted in 45 of 51 patients with data available. Of 48 patients with data endoscopy revealed erythema in 20, a papillary/polypoid lesion in 12, broad-based elevated erythematous lesions in 6, erythematous bullous edema in 5, shallow bleeding ulcers in 4 and prominent trabeculation in 1. Additional findings in the bladder were carcinoma in situ in 3 cases, and dysplasia, low grade papillary urothelial carcinoma and papillary urothelial hyperplasia in 1 each. Three of the 40 patients with an average followup of 27 months (range 1 to 94) subsequently had urothelial carcinoma, including 1 who had prior positive cytology and fluorescence in situ hybridization, 1 with prior high grade papillary urothelial carcinoma and 1 with an unknown history. Conclusions: Although pseudocarcinomatous urothelial hyperplasia mimics invasive urothelial carcinoma clinically and histologically, it is not related to urothelial neoplasms. Almost all patients have causes of bladder ischemia, most commonly a history of remote prior pelvic irradiation.
- urinary bladder
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