Protective effects of calcium against chronic waterborne cadmium exposure to juvenile rainbow trout

Lydia Hollis, James C. McGeer, D. Gordon McDonald, Chris M. Wood

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

68 Scopus citations

Abstract

Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss [Walbaum]) on 1% daily ration were exposed to 0 (control) or 2 μg of cadmium as Cd(NO3)2·4H2O per liter added to four different calcium (Ca) concentrations: 260 (background), 470 (low), 770 (medium), or 1200 (high) μM of Ca added as Ca(NO3)2·4H2O in synthetic soft water for 30 d. Mortality was highest (∼80%) in the background + Cd treatment. Approximately 40% mortality was observed in the low + Cd exposure; mortality was 10% or less for all other treatments. No growth effects were seen for any of the exposures. Kidneys accumulated the greatest concentration of Cd during the 30 d, followed by gills and livers. Accumulation of Cd in gills, kidney, and liver decreased at higher water Ca concentrations. No differences in whole-body or plasma Ca concentrations were found. Swimming performance was impaired in the low + Cd-exposed fish. Influx of Ca2+ into whole bodies decreased as water Ca concentrations increased; influx of Ca2+ into background + Cd-treated fish was significantly reduced compared to that in control fish. Experiments that measured uptake of new Cd into gills showed that the affinity of gills for Cd (KCd-gill) and the number of binding sites for Cd decreased as water Ca concentrations increased. Acute accumulation of new Cd into gills and number of gill Cd-binding sites increased with chronic Cd exposure, whereas the affinity of gills for Cd decreased with chronic Cd exposure. Longer-term gill binding (72 h) showed reduced uptake of new Cd at higher water Ca levels and increased uptake with chronic Cd exposure. Complications were found in applying the biotic ligand model to fish that were chronically exposed to Cd because of discrepancies in the maximum number of gill Cd-binding sites among different studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2725-2734
Number of pages10
JournalEnvironmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Volume19
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2000

Keywords

  • Cadmium
  • Calcium
  • Gill binding
  • Modeling
  • Rainbow trout

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Toxicology

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