To evaluate the efficacy of pentoxifylline (PTXF) in the attenuation of lung inflammation during volume-induced lung injury (VILI) in newborn piglets, 17 newborn piglets were mechanically ventilated with a large tidal volume (50 ml/kg) for a period of 8 h. They were randomly assigned to a placebo (PL, n = 9) or a treatment group (PTXF, n = 8) that received PTXF (20 mg/kg as a bolus, followed by a continuous infusion of 5 mg/kg/h). Hemodynamics, lung mechanics and arterial blood gases were measured during the 8 h of study. Serum and tracheoalveolar fluid (TAF) platelet-activating factor (PAF) and thromboxane (TXB2) levels were obtained at baseline and at 8 h, while lung tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) and wet to dry weight were assessed after the completion of the study. In the PL group, a marked increase in TAF PAF and TXB2 levels was observed only in TAF, suggesting that the inflammatory process was localized within the lungs. A significant decrease in lung tissue MPO activity (p < 0.005) and lung wet to dry weight ratio (p < 0.04) was observed in the PTXF group. There were no differences in hemodynamics, arterial blood gases or lung mechanics measurements between groups. A significant reduction in pulmonary inflammatory response was observed during VILI in the PTXF pretreated animals. These results suggest that PTXF may be effective in modulating lung inflammation associated with mechanical ventilation in neonates.
- Acute lung inflammation
- Anti-inflammatory agents
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Developmental Biology
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health