Protective effect of influenza vaccination on cardiovascular diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Moein Zangiabadian, Seyed Aria Nejadghaderi, Mehdi Mirsaeidi, Bahareh Hajikhani, Mehdi Goudarzi, Hossein Goudarzi, Masoud Mardani, Mohammad Javad Nasiri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. There are many contrasting ideas on the effectiveness of influenza vaccination on CVDs. This study aimed to investigate the association between influenza vaccination and the risk of CVDs. We systematically searched all PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane library entries up to November 2019 for studies of influenza vs. the CVDs outcomes. We conducted a random-effects meta‐analysis using the inverse variance method for pooled risk ratios (RR) or odds ratios (OR) and evaluated statistical heterogeneity using the I2 statistic. We identified 17 studies (6 randomized controlled trial [RCT], 5 cohorts, and 6 case–control) with a total of 180,043 cases and 276,898 control participants. The pooled RR of developing CVDs after influenza vaccination in RCT studies was 0.55 (95% CI 0.41–0.73), which was significant (P-value = 0.00). The pooled OR of decreasing CVDs after influenza vaccination in cohort studies was 0.89 (95% CI 0.77–1.04). The pooled OR of developing CVDs after influenza vaccination by pooling case–control studies was 0.70 (95% CI 0.57–0.86, (P-value = 0.00). All of these studies suggest decreased risks of CVDs with influenza vaccination. The current study does support the protective role of influenza vaccination on CVDs events. Health authorities may develop evidence-based preventive strategies to offer influenza vaccination in patients with CVDs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number20656
JournalScientific reports
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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