Passive transfer studies using monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies in the macaque model have been valuable for determining conditions for antibody protection against immunodeficiency virus challenge. Most studies have employed hybrid simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenge in conjunction with neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies. Passive protection against SIV, particularly the pathogenic prototype virus SIVmac239, has been little studied because of the paucity of neutralizing antibodies to this virus. Here, we show that the antibody-like molecule CD4-IgG2 potently neutralizes SIVmac239 in vitro. When administered by an osmotic pump to maintain concentrations given the short half-life of CD4-IgG2 in macaques, the molecule provided sterilizing immunity/protection against high-dose mucosal viral challenge to a high proportion of animals (5/7 at a 200 mg dose CD4-IgG2 and 3/6 at a 20 mg dose) at serum concentrations below 1.5 μg/ml. The neutralizing titers of such sera were predicted to be very low and indeed sera at a 1:4 dilution produced no neutralization in a pseudovirus assay. Macaque anti-human CD4 titers did develop weakly at later time points in some animals but were not associated with the level of protection against viral challenge. The results show that, although SIVmac239 is considered a highly pathogenic virus for which vaccine-induced T cell responses in particular have provided limited benefit against high dose challenge, the antibody-like CD4-IgG2 molecule at surprisingly low serum concentration affords sterilizing immunity/protection to a majority of animals.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)