Objective: To describe the clinical and pathologic features of two HIV-1-infected children with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Design: Case report. Setting: University-affiliated, public-health trust hospital. Methods: Two HIV-1-infected children with PML are described. A 13-year-old girl, presumed to be congenially infected with HIV-1, presented with dysarthria and paresthesias of the tongue and chin that evolved rapidly to dementia, muteness and severe spastic quadriparesis. The other patient, a 10-year-old boy who developed HIV-1 infection from a blood transfusion at the age of 3 years, presented with a facial palsy with subsequent development of right hemiparesis and aphasia. Results: Brain biopsy in the first child and autopsy in the second confirmed the diagnosis of PML. In both patients, the CD4 T-lymphocyte count was < 100 x 106/l at the time of neurological presentation. Conclusion: Despite seroepidemiological studies suggesting that the majority of individuals are infected with JC virus during childhood, PML is rare in children with impaired cell-mediated immunity. Our patients illustrate that PML is among the neurological complications of HIV-1 infection in children.
- JC virus
- Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy