Procalcitonin's amino-terminal cleavage peptide is a bone-cell mitogen

D. M. Burns, J. M. Forstrom, K. E. Friday, Guy Howard, B. A. Roos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

27 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The parafollicular-cell (C-cell) hormone calcitonin (CT) can preserve or even augment skeletal mass by inhibiting osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. The possibility of an additional anabolic skeletal influence has also been raised: C cells might, via CT or other secretory products, affect osteoblast-mediated bone formation. The 57-residue amino-terminal procalcitonin cleavage peptide, N-proCT, has recently been identified in human and rat C cells, where it is made and secreted in equimolar amounts with CT. The coelaboration of N-proCT and CT and N-proCT's sequence conservation during evolution prompted us to investigate the potential skeletal bioactivity of N-proCT. We found that synthetic human N-proCT, at nanomolar concentrations, stimulated proliferation of normal and neoplastic human osteoblasts. At maximally effective doses, human N-proCT caused more than a 100% increase above the control rate of DNA synthesis, an effect comparable to the maximal growth effect of insulin, a potent mitogen for osteoblasts. Human N-proCT exerted a similar maximal mitogenic effect in chicken osteoblast cultures but at 100-fold greater concentrations than in human bone-cell cultures. The bone-cell action of N-proCT was potentiated with insulin with a > 200% increase in DNA synthesis at high insulin concentrations. In sharp contrast to these findings for N-proCT, the other bioactive C-cell peptides, CT and somatostatin, showed no mitogenic effects in human or chicken osteoblast cultures. Our results indicate that the action of N-proCT on cultured bone cells is separate from and potentiated by insulin, a known growth factor. Unlike insulin and related growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor I, N-proCT is not mitogenic in skin fibroblast cultures. We propose that N-proCT is a C-cell hormone that promotes bone formation via stimulatory actions on osteoblasts and preosteoblasts.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9519-9523
Number of pages5
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume86
Issue number23
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 22 1989
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Calcitonin
Mitogens
Osteoblasts
Bone and Bones
Peptides
Insulin
Osteogenesis
Chickens
Hormones
DNA
Osteoclasts
Bone Resorption
Somatostatin
Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
Cultured Cells
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
Cell Culture Techniques
Fibroblasts
Skin
Growth

Keywords

  • C cells
  • growth factors
  • osteoblasts
  • osteoporosis
  • osteosarcoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • General

Cite this

Procalcitonin's amino-terminal cleavage peptide is a bone-cell mitogen. / Burns, D. M.; Forstrom, J. M.; Friday, K. E.; Howard, Guy; Roos, B. A.

In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 86, No. 23, 22.12.1989, p. 9519-9523.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Burns, D. M. ; Forstrom, J. M. ; Friday, K. E. ; Howard, Guy ; Roos, B. A. / Procalcitonin's amino-terminal cleavage peptide is a bone-cell mitogen. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1989 ; Vol. 86, No. 23. pp. 9519-9523.
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