Background. Studies using tacrolimus and corticosteroids or the combination of cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and corticosteroids have been shown to reduce the incidence of biopsy-proven acute rejection episodes in cadaveric kidney recipients compared with cyclosporine-based immunosuppresion. The current study is a retrospective analysis of our experience with tacrolimus combined with mycophenolate mofetil and steroids as primary immunosuppression for kidney transplant recipients. Methods. In a retrospective analysis, 72 patients who received primary therapy with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and corticosteroids (triple therapy) were compared with a control group of 98 kidney recipients who received tacrolimus and corticosteroids (double therapy). Results. There was a significant reduction in the incidence of biopsy-confirmed acute rejection in the triple therapy group (8.2%) compared with the double therapy group (21%; P=0.003). One-year patient and graft survival did not differ between groups. The incidence of posttransplant diabetes mellitus was 18% and 21% in the triple and double therapy groups, respectively. Leukopenia and gastrointestinal side effects were the most common cause for discontinuation of mycophenolate mofetil. Conclusions. The combination of tacrolimus with mycophenolate mofetil and corticosteroids is more effective at preventing early acute rejection than tacrolimus and corticosteroids alone. The use of mycophenolate mofetil was associated with a higher incidence of leukopenia and diarrhea, often leading to discontinuation of the drug.
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