Osteoporosis-related fractures (low-trauma or fragility fractures) cause substantial disability, health care costs, and mortality among postmenopausal women and older men. Epidemiologic studies indicate that at least half the population burden of osteoporosis-related fractures affects persons with osteopenia (low bone density), who comprise a larger segment of the population than those with osteoporosis. The public health burden of fractures will fail to decrease unless the subset of patients with low bone density who are at increased risk for fracture are identified and treated. Risk stratification for medically appropriate and cost-effective treatment is facilitated by the World Health Organization (WHO) FRAX® algorithm, which uses clinical risk factors, bone mineral density, and country-specific fracture and mortality data to quantify a patient's 10-year probability of a hip or major osteoporotic fracture. Included risk factors comprise femoral neck bone mineral density, prior fractures, parental hip fracture history, age, gender, body mass index, ethnicity, smoking, alcohol use, glucocorticoid use, rheumatoid arthritis, and secondary osteoporosis. FRAX® was developed by the WHO to be applicable to both postmenopausal women and men aged 40 to 90 years; the National Osteoporosis Foundation Clinician's Guide focuses on its utility in postmenopausal women and men aged > 50 years. It is validated to be used in untreated patients only. The current National Osteoporosis Foundation Guide recommends treating patients with FRAXR® 10-year risk scores of ≥ 3% for hip fracture or ≥ 20% for major osteoporotic fracture, to reduce their fracture risk. Additional risk factors such as frequent falls, not represented in FRAX®, warrant individual clinical judgment. FRAX® has the potential to demystify fracture risk assessment in primary care for patients with low bone density, directing clinical fracture prevention strategies to those who can benefit most.
- Clinical risk factors
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