Recombinant protein subunit AIDS vaccines have been based predominantly on the virus envelope protein. Such vaccines elicit neutralizing antibody responses that can provide type-specific sterilizing immunity, but in most cases do not confer protection against divergent viruses. In this report we demonstrate that a multiantigen subunit protein vaccine was able to prevent the development of disease induced in rhesus monkeys by a partially beterologous AIDS virus. The vaccine was composed of recombinant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120, NefTat fusion protein, and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Nef formulated in the clinically tested adjuvant AS02A. Upon challenge of genetically unselected rhesus monkeys with the highly pathogenic and partially heterologous SIV/HIV strain SHIV89.6p the vaccine was able to reduce virus load and protect the animals from a decline in CD4-positive cells. Furthermore, vaccination prevented the development of AIDS for more than 2.5 years. The combination of the regulatory proteins Nef and Tat together with the structural protein gp120 was required for vaccine efficacy.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Insect Science