Over the past three decades there have been a number of clinical trials directed at interdicting the type 1 diabetes (T1D) disease process in an attempt to prevent the development of the disease in those at increased risk or to stabilize-potentially even reverse-the disease in people with T1D, usually of recent onset. Unfortunately, to date there has been no prevention trial that has resulted in delay or prevention of T1D. And, trials in people with T1D have had mixed results with some showing promise with at least transient improvement in β-cell function compared with randomized control groups, while others have failed to slow the decline in β-cell function when compared with placebo. This Perspective will assess the past and present challenges in this effort and provide an outline for potential future opportunities.
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