Background: Processed electroencephalogram (EEG) monitors help assess the hypnotic state during general anesthesia or sedation. Maintaining the bispectral index (BIS) or state entropy (SE) between 40 and 60 has been recommended to mitigate anesthesia awareness. Nonetheless, SEs > 70 were frequently observed at end-tidal sevoflurane concentrations unlikely to allow awareness. We sought to determine the prevalence of elevated discordant measurements during BIS and SE monitoring. Methods: Electronic data collected over 11 months at two academic hospitals were retrospectively reviewed. At the hospital using SE, all cases were included with patients ≥ 18 yr and sevoflurane administered for at least 30 min during surgery. A cohort of cases propensity matched by age and American Society of Anesthesiologist Physical Status were selected from the hospital using BIS. Elevated discordant EEG indices were defined as values > 70 occurring during stable end-tidal sevoflurane concentrations > 1.5%. The odds ratio (OR) based on the probability of a case having at least one elevated discordant SE or BIS lasting ≥ two minutes (primary endpoint) was calculated. Results: At each hospital, 3,690 cases were studied. The mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) incidence of cases with at least one interval of an elevated discordant EEG index lasting at least two minutes was 3.6% (2.8% to 4.4%) for SE compared with 0.24% (0.17% to 0.27%) for BIS (pooled OR, 17.0; 95% CI, 8.3 to 34.7; P < 0.001). Conclusions: The prevalence of an elevated discordant EEG index is much greater with SE than with BIS. Elevated index values occurring at anesthetic concentrations well above the awareness threshold need to be assessed to determine if they indicate an inadequate depth of anesthesia requiring treatment or if they simply reflect the underlying monitoring algorithm.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine