Prevalence of congenital cardiovascular malformations in children of human immunodeficiency virus-infected women: The prospective P2C2 HIV multicenter study

Wyman W. Lai, Steven E. Lipshultz, Kirk A. Easley, Thomas J. Starc, Stacey E. Drant, J. Timothy Bricker, Steven D. Colan, Douglas S. Moodie, George Sopko, Samuel Kaplan

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Abstract

Objectives. The purpose of the study was to assess the effects of maternal HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus) infection and vertically transmitted HIV-1 infection on the prevalence of congenital cardiovascular malformations in children. Background. In the United States, an estimated 7000 children are born to HIV-infected women annually. Previous limited reports have suggested an increase in the prevalence of congenital cardiovascular malformations in vertically transmitted HIV-infected children. Methods. In a prospective longitudinal multicenter study, diagnostic echocardiograms were performed at 4-6-month intervals on two cohorts of children exposed to maternal HIV-1 infection: 1) a Neonatal Cohort of 90 HIV, infected, 449 HIV-uninfected and 19 HIV-indeterminate children; and 2) an Older HIV-Infected Cohort of 201 children with vertically transmitted HIV-1 infection recruited after 28 days of age. Results. In the Neonatal Cohort, 36 lesions were seen in 36 patients, yielding an overall congenital cardiovascular malformation prevalence of 6.5% (36/558), with a 8.9% (8/90) prevalence in HIV-infected children and a 5.6% (25/449) prevalence in HIV- uninfected children. Two children (2/558, 0.4%) had cyanotic lesions. In the Older HIV-Infected Cohort, there was a congenital cardiovascular malformation prevalence of 7.5% (15/201). The distribution of lesions did not differ significantly between the groups. Conclusions. There was no statistically significant difference in congenital cardiovascular malformation prevalence in HIV, infected versus HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-infected women. With the use of early screening echocardiography, rates of congenital cardiovascular malformations in both the HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children were five, to ten-fold higher than rates reported in population- based epidemiologic studies but not higher than in normal populations similarly screened. Potentially important subclinical congenital cardiovascular malformations were detected.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1749-1755
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Volume32
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 15 1998

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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    Lai, W. W., Lipshultz, S. E., Easley, K. A., Starc, T. J., Drant, S. E., Timothy Bricker, J., Colan, S. D., Moodie, D. S., Sopko, G., & Kaplan, S. (1998). Prevalence of congenital cardiovascular malformations in children of human immunodeficiency virus-infected women: The prospective P2C2 HIV multicenter study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 32(6), 1749-1755. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0735-1097(98)00449-5