Prevalence and risk factors of dry eye syndrome in a United States Veterans Affairs population

Anat Galor, William Feuer, David J. Lee, Hermes Florez, David Carter, Bozorgmehr Pouyeh, William J. Prunty, Victor L. Perez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

127 Scopus citations


Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence of dry eye syndrome (DES) and its associated risk factors in a US Veterans Affairs population receiving ocular care services. Design: Retrospective study. Methods: settings: Patients were seen in the Miami and Broward Veterans Affairs eye clinics between 2005 and 2010. patients population: Patients were divided into cases and controls with regard to their dry eye status (cases = ICD9 code for DES plus dry eye therapy; controls = patients without ICD9 code plus no therapy). main outcome measures: The prevalence of DES and its associated risk factors. Results: A total of 16 862 patients were identified as either a dry eye case (n = 2056) or control (n = 14 806). Overall, 12% of male and 22% of female patients had a diagnosis of DES, with female gender imparting a 2.40 increased risk (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.042.81) over male gender. Several medical conditions were found to increase DES risk including post-traumatic stress disorder (odds ratio [OR] 1.97, 95% CI 1.752.23), depression (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.732.10), thyroid disease (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.462.26), and sleep apnea (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.972.46) (all analyses adjusted for gender and age). The use of several systemic medications, including anti-depressant medications (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.792.17), anti-anxiety medication (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.581.91), and antibenign prostatic hyperplasia medications (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.511.86), was likewise associated with an increased risk of DES. Conclusions: The prevalence of DES was found to be high in both men and women in our eye care population. This is the first study to demonstrate that in a veteran population, several diagnoses were significantly associated with DES, including post-traumatic stress disorder and depression.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)377-384.e2
JournalAmerican journal of ophthalmology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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