Prevalence and risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome and dyslipidemia in White, Black, Amerindian and Mixed Hispanics in Zulia State, Venezuela

Hermes Florez, Eglé Silva, Virginia Fernández, Elena Ryder, Tulio Sulbarán, Gilberto Campos, Gustavo Calmón, Emilio Clavel, Sumaya Castillo-Florez, Ronald Goldberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

100 Scopus citations


Studies have highlighted the association between insulin resistance (IR) and several cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, including hypertension (HTN), obesity, dyslipidemia (i.e. high triglyceride and low HDL-cholesterol) and glucose intolerance, in a cluster known as the metabolic syndrome (MS). There are few data on the frequency of the MS and dyslipidemia in developing countries, and none in South America. To estimate the prevalence of the MS and its components in Zulia State, Venezuela, and to establish associated demographic and clinical factors, we evaluated 3108 Hispanic men and women aged 20 years or older from a cross-sectional survey of a random representative sample from each health district in Zulia State, Venezuela (1999-2001). Prevalence of the MS and dyslipidemia was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP)/Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria. The age-adjusted prevalence of MS and dyslipidemia was 31.2% and 24.1%, respectively, with higher rates in men than in women. Prevalence rates increased with age and with the degree of obesity. MS prevalence was lower in Amerindian (17.%) compared to Black (27.2%), White (33.3%) and Mixed (37.4%) men, but no differences were found among women. Overall, low HDL-cholesterol (65.3%), abdominal obesity (42.9%) and HTN (38.1%) were the most frequent MS components. After adjusting for age, sex and race groups, family history of diabetes, obesity and HTN were associated with the MS. Sedentary lifestyle also increased the risk of MS, event after adjusting for the same covariates, obesity and the degree of IR. These results suggest that MS is found in approximately one-third of the Venezuelan adult population in Zulia State, with higher prevalence in men related to the presence of dyslipidemia. Lifestyle interventions in MS subjects are needed in Venezuela to halt the burden of CV disease and diabetes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)63-77
Number of pages15
JournalDiabetes research and clinical practice
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 2005


  • Dyslipidemia
  • Hispanics
  • HOMA-insulin resistance
  • Metabolic syndrome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


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