Despite advances in liver transplantation and preoperative risk stratification, there remains significant posttransplant morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular and renal disease. There are limited and conflicting data on the role of pretransplant echocardiography to predict these outcomes. The purpose of our study was to determine if pretransplant echocardiographic parameters were associated with posttransplant survival and the development of incident cardiovascular events and chronic kidney disease (CKD). We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 397 adult liver transplant recipients at the University of Pennsylvania from January 1, 2005 to September 30, 2014. Patients with acute liver failure, those without a diagnosis of cirrhosis (eg, polycystic liver disease without portal hypertension), retransplants, and multiorgan transplants were excluded. In multivariable Cox regression models, tricuspid regurgitation graded greater than mild was associated with significantly increased posttransplant mortality (hazard ratio, 1.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-2.75; P = 0.04). In multivariable competing risk models, increasing pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) was associated with significantly increased risk of hospitalization for myocardial infarction or heart failure (subhazard ratio per 5 mm Hg increase in PASP, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.48-2.17; P < 0.001). In multivariable competing risk models, increased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was associated with a numerical but nonsignificant increased risk of stage 4 or 5 CKD (subhazard ratio, 1.11 per 5% increase in LVEF; 95% CI, 0.99-1.24; P = 0.07). In a post hoc analysis, LVEF ≥ 65% was the best cutoff for increased risk of CKD (subhazard ratio, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.06-2.89; P = 0.03). In conclusion, several pretransplant echocardiographic parameters were associated with posttransplant morbidity and mortality, suggesting that pretransplant echocardiography may be used as a tool to risk-stratify patients for posttransplant outcomes. Liver Transpl 22:316-323, 2016.
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