Prenatal, perinatal and neonatal stimulation: A survey of neonatal nurseries

Tiffany Field, Maria Hernandez-Reif, Larissa Feijo, Julia Freedman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


A recent survey was conducted on stimulation of mothers and babies during pregnancy and the neonatal period. The survey was responded to by 82 neonatology staff members from Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs) at hospitals in the United States. Some forms of stimulation were extremely common including (1) skin-to-skin following birth in the delivery room (83% of hospitals); (2) containment (swaddling and surrounded by blanket rolls) in the NICU (86%); (3) music in the NICU (72%); (4) rocking in the NICU (85%); (5) kangaroo care (98%); (6) non-nutritive sucking during tubefeedings in the NICU (96%); and (7) breastfeeding in the NICU (100%). Other forms of stimulation occurred less frequently including (1) pregnancy massage (19%); (2) labor massage (30%); (3) the Doula (assistant who comforts during labor and delivery) (30%); (4) waterbeds in the NICU (23%); and (5) preterm infant massage in the NICU (38%).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)24-31
Number of pages8
JournalInfant Behavior and Development
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2006


  • Massage therapy
  • Neonatal
  • Pregnancy
  • Stimulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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